- 7th millenium (BC)?: writing
- 3rd-4th millenia (BC)?: cuneiform; hieroglyphics; clay tablets; papyrus
- 2nd millenium (BC)?: libraries; scribes
- 5th century (BC)?: parchment
- 3rd century (BC)?: Dead Sea Scrolls Get New Life Online
- 1st century (CE)?: paper (China); codex (Egypt, Roman Empire)
- From Scroll to Screen
- 3rd century: woodblock printing (China)
- 6th century: scriptorium (European monasteries)
- 1040: ceramic & wooden movable type (China)
- 1230: metal movable type (Korea)
- 1440: printing press w/ metal movable type (Europe: Gutenberg)
- Printed books existed nearly 600 years before Gutenberg’s Bible movable type; 5/14/2012
- 1492: A Fifteenth Century Technopanic About The Horrors Of The Printing Press: De laude scriptorum manualium (In Praise of Scribes)
- 1731: Library Company of Philadelphia (US lending library)
- 1899: 19th Century French Artists Predicted the World of the Future in this Series of Postcards illustration shows books being ground up and fed directly into the ears of schoolchildren; 10/15/2012
- 1935: Smithsonian Paleofuture: The iPad of 1935
- 1938: World Brain by H. G. Wells. He imagined a time -- not very distant, he believed -- when every person on the planet would have easy access to a "World Encyclopaedia" that could help world citizens make the best use of universal information resources and make the best contribution to world peace: "The time is close at hand, when any student, in any part of the world, will be able to sit with his projector in his own study at his or her convenience to examine any book, any document, in an exact replica."
- 1939: How Paperbacks Transformed the Way Americans Read Half a century before e-books turned publishing upside down, a different format threatened to destroy the industry; PocketBooks; 8/12/2012
- 1945: Vannevar Bush: As We May Think, Memex [animation: 2:30]; "[The Memex is a] sort of mechanized private file and library...a device in which an individual stores all his books, records, and communications, and which is mechanized so that it may be consulted with exceeding speed and flexibility. It is an enlarged intimate supplement to his memory." Wired article
- 1946: ENIAC
- 1947: Making Books (video; 9:55)
- 1959: [image: Home Electronic Library]
- 1960: Project Xanadu: "Hypertext", "Hypermedia"
- 1961: electronic book store in Return from the Stars by Stanislaw Lem: "I spent the afternoon in a bookstore. There were no books in it. None had been printed for nearly half a century. And how I have looked forward to them, after the micro films that made up the library of the Prometheus! No such luck. No longer was it possible to browse among shelves, to weigh volumes in hand, to feel their heft, the promise of ponderous reading. The bookstore resembled, instead, an electronic laboratory. The books were crystals with recorded contents. They can be read the aid of an opton, which was similar to a book but had only one page between the covers. At a touch, successive pages of the text appeared on it. But optons were little used, the sales-robot told me. The public preferred lectons - like lectons read out loud, they could be set to any voice, tempo, and modulation. Only scientific publications having a very limited distribution were still printed, on a plastic imitation paper. Thus all my purchases fitted into one pocket, though there must have been almost three hundred titles. My handful of crystal corn - my books... The robot that served me was itself an encyclopedia, in that - as it told me - it was linked directly, through electronic catalogs, to templates of every book on earth. As a rule, a bookstore had only single "copies" of books, and when someone needed a particular book, the contents of the work was recorded in a crystal. The originals - Crystomatrices - were not to be seen; they were kept behind pale blue enamel the steel plates. So a book was printed, as it were, every time someone needed it. The question of printings, of their quantity, of their running out, had ceased to exist. Actually, a great achievement, and yet I regretted the passing of books."
- 1962: The Robot Who Wanted To Know, Harry Harrison; A Filer is an amazingly intelligent robot and there aren't many being manufactured. You'll find them only in the greatest libraries, dealing with only the largest and most complex collections. To call them simply librarians is to demean all librarians and to call their work simple. Of course very little intelligence is needed to shelve books or stamp cards, but this sort of work has long been handled by robots that are little more than wheeled IBM machines. The cataloging of human information has always been an incredibly complex task. The Filer robots were the ones who finally inherited the job. It rested easier on their metallic shoulders, than it ever had on the rounded ones of human librarians.
- 1968: Looking at sci-fi tech as prior art: 2001: A Space Odyssey (tablet computing); video
- NLS (oN-Line System) (links, mouse, windows at SRI)
- FRESS (File Retrieval and Editing SyStem) (hypertext manuals at Brown Univ.)
- Galaxy Tab 10.1 vs. iPad 2 vs. Clarke's Newspad
- 1969: ARPAnet; (Evolution of the Internet: History)
- 1971: Project Gutenberg: digital library; e-books
- 1979: The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy by Douglas Adams:
"a sort of electronic book [that] tells you everything you need to know about anything."
- 1981: Searching for Information in a Dynamic Book (dissertation). "Design of a dynamic book for information search" [paper: .pdf, 5.4Mb; video: mp4] Weyer, Stephen A. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies. 17(1): 87-107; July 1982.
- 1983: NoteCards
- 3 encyclopedia projects at Atari:
- Images of Atari Intelligent Encylopedia Project 1982
- Knoesphere: building expert systems with encyclopedic knowledge Proceedings of the 8th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI-83) Karlsruhe, West Germany, 1983. pp. 167-169
- "A prototype electronic encyclopedia" [paper: .pdf, 7.6Mb; video: mp4] Weyer, Stephen A.; Borning, Alan H. ACM Transactions on Office Information Systems. 3(1): 63-88; January, 1985. (reprinted in Scanlon, Eileen and O'Shea, Tim (eds.) Educational computing: pp. 271-296. John Wiley, New York; 1986).
- 1984: Heretics of Dune; Frank Herbert; Taraza rather distrusted Archivists, which she knew was an ambivalent attitude because she recognized the underlying necessity for data. But Chapter House Records could only be viewed as a jungle of of abbreviations, special notations, coded insertions, and footnotes. Such material often required a Mentat for translation or, what was worse in times of extreme fatigue demanded that she delve into Other Memories. ...You could never consult Archival Records in a straightforward manner. Much of the interpretation that emerged from that source had to be accepted on the word of the ones who brought it or (hateful!) you had to rely on the mechanical search by the holosystem...
- 1985: desktop publishing
- 1987: HyperCard; Intermedia; Knowledge Navigator
- How Star Trek artists imagined the iPad (in 1987)
- 1990: Nora Barnacle and the Birth of the E-book Voyager Co.
- 1992: World Wide Web; Tim Berners-Lee
- first web site at CERN; 11/3/1992
- 1993: Adobe PDF (Portable Document Format)
- AT&T EO Personal Communicator (tablet)
- Newton Messagepad (w/ "Copperfield" book reader)
- 1994: Amazon.com
- Here's What an "iPad" Looked Like in 1994 (video)
- 1995: Newt's Cape: HTML (web pages) in a Newton E-book
- The Diamond Age: Or, a Young Lady’s Illustrated Primer by Neal Stephenson described an interactive book that can teach lessons on many topics, entertain with games and provide virtual training for living in the real world.
- 1996: Online books pave the way for modern e-books
- 1997: Apple eMate (Newton netbook): Wikipedia; MacWorld
- 1999: Open E-book Publication Structure (predecessor to ePub format)
- Blogger: early weblog (blog) publishing tool
- 2001: Wikipedia
- 2002: Microsoft Tablet PCs
- 2004: Google Books
- 2007: Amazon Kindle (E-reader)
- ePub (E-book format)
- Adobe Digital Editions(E-book reader app)
- 2009: Barnes & Noble Nook (E-reader)
- 2010: Apple iPad (tablet)
- 2011: E-books (this course): first offered; Ashland [Fall];
Ashland Macintosh Users Group (AshMUG), Dec 2011 (presentation)
- Michael Hart, a Pioneer of E-Books (Project Gutenberg), Dies at 64
- 2012: A Brief History of Textbooks, or, Why Apple's 'New Textbook Experience' Is Actually Revolutionary
- After 244 Years, Encyclopaedia Britannica Stops the Presses
- ?: Future of the Book (O'Reilly); ...
- see Future