- "The nicest thing about standards is that there are so many of them to choose from." ~Ken Olsen
- "The Internet 'browser'... is the piece of software that puts a message on your computer screen informing you that the Internet is currently busy and you should try again later." ~Dave Barry
Internet Protocol Suite has 4 layers -- from lowest level to highest:
(Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model: 7 layers [HSW])
1) Link Layer (physical): Ethernet [HSW]; PPP, Media Access Control (MAC)
2) Internet Layer (packet [HSW]): Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Ping; Internet Protocol: IPv4, IPv6
3) Transport Layer (connection): Transmission Control Protocol (TCP); port, socket
4) Application Layer (processes)
email: Post Office Protocol (POP), Internet Message Access Prot. (IMAP), Simple Mail Transfer Prot. (SMTP)
web: HyperText Transfer Protocol (http) [error codes], HTTP Secure (https)
files/terminal: File Transfer Protocol (ftp), TELNET (TELe-NETwork), Secure SHell (SSH)
security: https, SSH, Transport Layer Security (TLS), Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
misc.: Internet Relay Chat (IRC), Network Time Prot. (NTP), Network News Transfer Prot. (NNTP); Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) [HSW]
peering; buffer, buffer bloat
Understanding bufferbloat and the network buffer arms race
Web Sockets and the risks of unfinished standards
The FBI Planted Backdoors to Easily Spy on the Internet, Claims Collaborator (OpenBSD's IPSEC (Internet Protocol Security) stack) ??
'Leap seconds' may be cut
Research experiment disrupts Internet, for some
Why Should I Care About HTTPS on Facebook (or Other Web Sites)?
Standards and Tools
- "I just became one with my browser software." ~Bill Griffith (Zippy)
- "In '93 to '94, every browser had its own flavor of HTML. So it was very difficult to know what you could put in a Web page and reliably have most of your readership see it." ~Tim Berners-Lee
Web 1.0: 1991-2001 (passive content) [HSW];
Web 2.0: 2001- (collaborative users) [HSW];
Web 3.0, 4.0 (?) [HSW 3.0: intro, quiz (10); video; 5:48]: (Metaverse, Semantic Web [HSW])
Apps is the new Web: sowing the seeds for Web 3.0
Proclaimed Dead, Web Is Showing New Life
(Berners-Lee) Long Live the Web: A Call for Continued Open Standards and Neutrality
The Web Is Dead. Long Live the Internet
Is the Web Dying? It Doesn’t Look That Way; Is the Web Dead?
Re-thinking the Internet with security and mobility in mind
HSW: What's the difference between the Internet and the World Wide Web?
web server (Apache); [HSW: server intro; quiz (10); www; htm, asp, ...; many users]
server farm; mirror computing, mirror sites; load balancing; Content Delivery Network (CDN); Akamai
Wayback Machine [WBM site]
Prineville, Ore., pop. 10,000, is Facebook's new friend (Data center)
Welcome to Googleville (The Dalles)
HSW: Do honeybees hold the secret for faster Web servers?
Browsers, Client Apps
web page [HSW: intro, quiz (10)], dynamic web page; pull technology (push technology)
web browser: Chrome, Firefox [HSW], Internet Explorer, Opera, Safari, Newt's Cape; WebKit
email clients: Eudora, Outlook, Thunderbird, 'webmail', ...
ftp clients: Fetch, FileZilla, ...
feed aggregators, telnet clients, newsreaders [HSW], ... (other protocols?)
Mozilla Firefox 4 Release Candidate for Windows, Mac and Linux Now Available
Microsoft kicks off effort to rid the world of IE6 "Friends don't let friends use Internet Explorer 6." ~Microsoft
Flash 10.3 Beta Integrates Settings into Your Local Control Panel vs. flash cookies via web page
New (EU) net rules set ('explicit consent') to make cookies crumble
Shoddy Web experiences driving users from the mobile Internet (don't render properly, too hard to navigate)
Microsoft, Mozilla Battle Over What Makes a ‘Modern’ Web Browser
Google: Chrome will be 60 times faster
Microsoft’s New Browser (IE9) Is Pretty Cool. No, Seriously.
Modern web browser adoption better than expected: 71% run latest version
Web Browsing Takes a Social Turn (RockMelt)
Shhh... Opera holds the web's most valuable secret (transaction cache)
Smartphone Browser Landscape
The Browser Gets Fragmented
Bulk (80%) of browsers (& plugins) vulnerable to attack due to poor patching
Microsoft's Internet Explorer browser falls below 50% of worldwide market for first time
LH: How and Why Chrome Is Overtaking Firefox Among Power Users
HTML, Objects, Style, Files
HyperText Markup Language (HTML) (tutorials; HTML5 [demo], eXtensible HTML (XHTML), Dynamic HTML (DHTML))
Cascading Style Sheets (CSS); Document Object Model (DOM)
eXtensible Markup Language (XML); Really Simple Syndication (RSS) [video; 1:26; HSW]
Web O' Wonder (Firefox4 HTML5 demos)
HTML5 in the Web browser (4 parts): 1. Canvas, video, audio, and graphics (SVG, WebGL); 2. Local data storage; 3. Data communications; 4. Forms
The State of HTML5 Audio
HTML5 spec set for 2014 completion
With a Big Push From Apple, HTML5 Video Wins the Web (But Not Completely)
HTML5 vs. HTML
W3C: Hold off on deploying HTML5 in websites
HTML5 Transfers Application Power from Server to Browser
HTML5 May Help Web Pages Talk, Listen
Learning from our Mistakes: The Failure of OpenID, AtomPub and XML on the Web
file formats: gif, jpg, mp3, etc.
Google offers JPEG alternative (WebP) for faster Web
EmotionML: Will computers tap into your feelings?
HSW: Why are there so many different image formats on the Web?
HSW: How Web Animation Works
Programming Languages, Extensions
- "Programming today is a race between software engineers stirring to build bigger and better idiot-proof programs, and the universe trying to produce bigger and better idiots. So far, the universe is winning." ~Rich Cook
- "If builders built buildings the way programmers wrote programs, then the first woodpecker that came along would destroy civilization." ~one of Murphy's laws of tech
- "There are no significant bugs in our released software that any significant number of users want fixed." ~Bill Gates
Java [HSW: intro, quiz (10)]; Common Gateway Interface (CGI) [HSW]
Php: Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP), Java, Perl, Python, Ruby, ...: server-side scripting;
MySQL: Relational Database Management System (RDMS) [HSW], Structured Query Language (SQL);
Linux, Apache HTTP Server, MySQL, and PHP (LAMP) (WAMP, MAMP -- local web server);
testing: validator (syntax): W3 (X)HTML, CSS; W3 CheckLink; cross-browser (e.g., BrowserShots)
browser benchmark / speed test
cookie [HSW: intro, quiz (10)]; web beacon, web bug, tracking bug, tracking pixel, pixel tag
browser: add-on (plug-in, extension, theme) QuickTime (Apple)
Adobe Acrobat (PDF), Adobe Flash; ad blocker/filter [HSW]
HTTP cookies, or how not to design protocols
Nevercookie Eats Evercookie With New Firefox Plugin
Anonymizer Labs Develops ‘Anonymizer Nevercookie’ to Contend With the Evercookie Threat
Breaking the Web's Cookie Jar (Firesheep)
HTTPS Everywhere gets Firefox "Firesheep" protection
Adblock Plus, The Popular Firefox Add-On, Hits 100 Million Downloads
more about cookies under security ?
LH: Top 10 Must-Have Browser Extensions
(frameworks can be regarded as applications also); HTML editor/web authoring
templates; web site builder; collaborative software
blog [HSW] (microblog): Blogger/Blogspot, Movable Type, Typepad, Wordpress; wiki [HSW] (comparison)
video sharing (YouTube): streaming media [HSW], video, 2:55; photo sharing [HSW] (Flickr, Picasa);
Content Management System (CMS) (comparison of CMS; blog; wiki): Drupal [this site], Joomla!
social networking sites; web applications; open source (Sourceforge); mobile web; mashups
How did WordPress win? (vs. MovableType)
Web Designers Versus Web Developers, Visualized
HSW: If I want to create my own Web site, what do I have to do?
HSW: How to Set Up a Business Web Site