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1980: Metcalfe's law: network effects; "value of a telecommunications network is proportional to the square of the number of connected users"
Internet Movie Database
1981: Hosts: 213 with another host connecting approximately every twenty days
IPv4: ~4.3 billion (2 32) Internet Protocol (IP) addresses; IPv4 "address exhaustion": from ever more users and devices
"A name indicates what we seek. An address indicates where it is. A route indicates how to get there."
What is an IP address?; Can you really be traced from your IP address? 3/28/2011
CSNet Computer Science Network; BITNET Because It's There Network; How did the Internet start?: Early Networks
Minitel; On the Farms of France, the Death of a Pixelated Workhorse 6/27/2012
IBM PC; MS-DOS; Microsoft Quiz
Osborne 1: portable computer; What was the first portable computer?; 30 years of mobile computing 4/5/2011
by True Names Vernor Vinge: Transhumanism; cyberpunk; What's the technological singularity?
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP): sending email; How E-mail Works: The SMTP Server
FAQ Frequently Asked Questions; emoticon :-) originated 1881
European UNIX Network EUNet
1983: Hosts: 562; map
Apple Lisa; Tech Time Warp of the Week 10/25/2013
SUN workstation "Stanford University Network"; SUN Microsystems; Unix
Viewtron: videotex; Why didn't Internet on TV take off in 1983? video
1984: Hosts: 1024; initial set of top-level "general purpose" domains: .com, .edu, .net, .gov, .mil, .org
Domain Name System (DNS)
List of Internet top-level domains; generic top-level domains (gTLDs)
How Domain Name Servers Work; What are the standard top-level domain names and who controls them?
Where are all the Internet domain names registered and maintained?
cybersquatting registering a domain name that should belong to someone else with that trademark
typosquatting aka URL hijacking; e.g., googl.com
First new gTLDs added to the root zone of the Domain Name System the gTLD process will result in expansion of top-level domains from 22 to up to 1400; 10/23/2013
Coming Soon to the Internet: The .whatever Address 6/20/2011
New Internet Designations Created The Onion: .trump,.whyisthisawebsite,...; 6/21/2012
Cisco Systems: network switch, router; Cisco history; The Long and Wireless Road to a Home Router 4/7/2011
How Routers Work; Router Quiz; How Routing Algorithms Work
How LAN Switches Work; How Home Networking Works; Home Networking Quiz
Network Address Translation (NAT); How Network Address Translation Works; How Internet Infrastructure Works
How to Secure Your Home Network; How hard is it to set up a network between two computers in my home? videos:
home connection; 0:45; home networking; 3:16
Why Support Tells You to Wait 10 Seconds Before Rebooting Your Router 7/19/2013
Why Do I Have to Keep Resetting My Router, and How Can I Fix It? 6/16/2012
FidoNet: worldwide computer network used to communicate between bulletin board systems
Hands on with the first Mac: Apple's Macintosh 128K 'review'; 1/24/2014
The Mac and other things turning 30 in 2014 1/24/2014
Apple: 30 Years of the Mac 1/24/2014
NoteCards hypertext personal knowledge basesystem; Xerox PARC
film: The Terminator: Skynet, self-aware defense network
DARPA Tried to Build Skynet in the 1980s 12/18/2013
by Neuromancer William Gibson: cyberspace; 10 of the World?s Most Groundbreaking Futurists: 5: William Gibson
What Is War in the Digital Realm? A Reality Check on the Meaning of 'Cyberspace' 11/26/2013
1985: Hosts: 1961
symbolics.com 1st registered domain; now, ad site
WELL Whole Earth 'Lectronic Link: virtual communities, social networking service
Windows 1.0; Windows' Rivals: The Ones That Didn't Make It Visi On; TopView; GEM; DESQview; DeskMate; GEOS; 11/24/2010
Did this 1985 film coin the phrase 'information superhighway' and predict Siri? ATT video; 6/21/2012
1986: Hosts: 2,308
Supercomputer Network Study Act of 1986 introduced by Sen. Albert Gore
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF): Request for Comments (RFC) over 1000 issued; Who owns the Internet?
Meet the Man Who Invented the Instructions for the Internet Steve Crocker; RFCs; 5/18/2012
Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) foundation for HTML (web) and EPUB (e-books)
LISTSERV: electronic mailing list
Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) for ; newsgroups How Newsgroups Work
1987: Hosts: 28,174; maps: Internet, NSFNet
GIF: Graphics Interchange Format Compuserve
How Web Animation Works; Why are there so many different image formats on the Web?
HyperCard Apple; Intermedia Brown Univ.
25 years of HyperCard -- the missing link to the Web before the World Wide Web did anything, HyperCard did everything; 5/30/2012
Knowledge Navigator: search agent Apple; set in 2011. not realized except...
How Apple Invented The Future (and the iPad) in 1986 10/24/2011; How Siri Works
Project 2000 student competition in 1988; 5/10/2007
1988: Hosts: 56,000; connections to Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Iceland, Norway...
NeXT Computer Steve Jobs; used at CERN for web
Computer Emergency Response Team Internet security incidents and cyberthreats; (not Ashland CERT)
Malware: short for malicious software, is a general term used to refer to a variety of forms of hostile or intrusive software,
e.g, to disrupt computer operation, gather sensitive information, or gain access to private computer systems. Only some is internet-related. Videos:
malware: viruses, trojans, worms, 2:32
Reporting From the Web?s Underbelly cybersecurity blog, Krebs on Security, covers a particularly dark corner of the Internet: profit-seeking cybercriminals, many based in Eastern Europe, who make billions off pharmaceutical sales, malware, spam, frauds and heists; 2/16/2014
How to Detect Online Scams; What?s the Difference Between Viruses, Trojans, Worms, and Other Malware?
Viruses Wreak Havoc On Your Files
Spyware Steals Your Information
Scareware Holds Your PC for Ransom
Trojan Horses Install a Backdoor
Worms Infect Through the Network
Worm: malware that actively transmits itself (automatically, w/o user intervention) over a network to infect other computers examples:
Shockwave Rider 1975 S-F novel; Morris Worm 1988; Conflicker 2008; Stuxnet 2010; Iran uranium centrifuges
The Stuxnet Worm Had an Evil Secret Twin 11/20/2013
Eye-opening ?Morris worm? turns 25 tomorrow here's how a Boston PBS station covered the story at the time; 11/1/2013
Virus: malware that has infected some executable software and, when run (usually by user opening a program, email or document), causes the virus to spread.
How Computer Viruses Work; How to Know if Your Computer is Infected with a Virus; How do viruses and worms spread in e-mail?
10 Worst Computer Viruses of All Time; Nine Common Myths and Misconceptions About Viruses, Examined and Debunked How to Delete the Worst Computer Virus:
Part 1, Part 2 6/12/2013
Trojan Horse: malware that appears benign/desirable but conceals malicious code; e.g., Zeus (2007-); How Trojan Horses Work
Botnet: collection of Internet-connected programs communicating with other similar programs in order to perform tasks -- some may be malware
Zombie computer: malware used to send email spam, to host contraband data such as child pornography, or to extort via distributed denial-of-service attacks.
How Zombie Computers Work; How to Fix Your Zombie Computer
Spyware: malware that monitors users' web browsing, displays unsolicited advertisements, or redirects affiliate marketing revenues to the spyware creator.
Keystroke logging is the action of recording (or logging) the keys struck on a keyboard, typically in a covert manner, e.g., passwords
How Spyware Works; How to Avoid Spyware; How to Scan for and Remove Spyware
Rootkits modify the host's operating system so that the malware is hidden from the user.
Ransomware: restricts access to the system that it infects, and demands a ransom paid to the creator of the malware in order to remove the restriction.
Logic bomb: malware triggered by certain conditions, e.g., programmer fired; How does a logic bomb work?
Hacker (black hat); How Hackers Work; Firewall; How Firewalls Work; Computer Security Quiz
Internet Relay Chat (IRC): online chat synchronous conferencing
How do web conferencing programs work?; How Web Conferencing Security Works; How to Host a Web Conference; Quiz
How Web Seminars Work; How Online Presentations Work
1989: Hosts: 100,000+; connection to commercial services and Internet Service Providers (ISP), e.g., Compuserve
The First Analysis Of The Web: Vague, But Exciting Berners-Lee's first proposal; 4/18/2012
The Web at 25 in the U.S. Pew; overall verdict: The internet has been a plus for society and an especially good thing for individual users; 2/27/2014
America OnLine (AOL) formerly ; Quantum Link How AOL Mail Works
Instant Messaging (IM); How AOL Instant Messenger Works; video; 1:50
Fetch: ftp client (application) The Decades That Invented the Future
Part 9: 1980s Space Shuttle Columbia; IBM PC; Macintosh; MTV; Miracle on Ice; Leveraged Buyout; Nintendo NES; Sandra Day O'Conner; Stealth; Additive Manufacturing (early 3D printing); In-Car Stereos; Autofocus; 12/21/2012 Computing Timelines:
1980s Computer History Museum:
Amazing ?80s Ads From Omni, the Mag That Defined Geekdom 2/27/2014
Book traversal links for Internet: 1980s